A snowmobile is a land vehicle that is commonly propelled by a continuous track or tracks at the rear and steered by skis at the front. It can also be known in some places as a snowmachine, snowsled or the genericized trademark of the Bombardier product, Ski-Doo.
Early snowmobiles used rubber tracks, however modern snowmobiles typically have tracks made of a Kevlar composite. They are designed to be operated on snow and ice, and require no road or trail. Originally snowmobiles were typically powered by two-stroke gasoline/petrol internal combustion engines. Four-stroke engines are becoming more and more popular in snowmobiles. Noise and air pollution concerns and regulations are a driving factor in this transition. Summertime occupations for snowmobile enthusiasts can also involve drag racing on grass, asphalt strips, or even across water.
People who ride them commonly are known as snowmobilers. The main types of riding are Snowcross/racing, trail riding, x games, and mountain climbing.
雪地车是一种陆地车辆，通常是一个持续推进的轨道或轨道后部和指导的滑雪板的前端。它在一些地方可以被称为snowmachine ， snowsled或genericized商标庞巴迪产品，滑雪斗[ 1 ] 。
History Multi-passenger snowmobiles Main articles: Aerosan and Snowcat The NKL-26 armoured Aerosan of World War Two. Nicholas II Delaunay-Belleville with Kégresse track
The origin of the snowmobile is not the work of any one inventor but more a process of advances in engines for the propulsion of vehicles and supporting devices over snow. It parallels the development of the automobile and later aviation, often inventors using the same components for a different use.
The Aerosan, propeller-powered and running on skis, was built in 1909-1910 by the Russian inventor Igor Sikorsky. Aerosans were used by the Soviet Red Army during the Winter War and the Second World War There is some dispute over whether Aerosans should be considered snowmobiles, as they are not propelled by tracks, but if they are, they would be the first snowmobiles developed.
Adolphe Kégresse designed an original caterpillar tracks system, called the Kégresse track, while working for Tsar Nicholas II of Russia between 1906 and 1916. These used a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments and could be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track, suitable for use over soft ground, including snow. Conventional front wheels and steering were used but the wheel could be fitted with skis as seen in the upper right image. He applied it to several cars in the Royal garage including Rolls-Royce cars and Packard trucks. Although this was not a snowmobile, it could be thought as one of the ancestor of the modern concept.
The first United States patent for a snow-vehicle using the now recognized format of rear track(s) and front skis was issued to Ray H. Muscott of Waters, MI on June 27, 1916 with U.S. Patent # 1,188,981. Many individuals later modified Ford Model Ts with the undercarriage replaced with tracks and skis following this design. They were popular for rural mail delivery for a time.Early Bombardier Snowmobile Early snowmobile interior
The relatively dry snow conditions of the United States Midwest suited the converted model Ts and other like vehicles but they were not suitable for operation in more humid snow areas such as Southern Quebec. This led Joseph-Armand Bombardier of the small town of Valcourt in Quebec, Canada, to invent a different caterpillar track system suitable for all kinds of snow conditions. Bombardier had already made some "metal" tracked vehicles since 1928, but his new revolutionary track traction system (a toothed wheel covered in rubber, and a rubber and cotton track that wraps around the back wheels) was his first major invention. He started production of a large, enclosed, seven-passenger snowmobile in 1937, the B-7 and introduced another enclosed twelve-passenger model, the B-12 in 1942. The B-7 had a V-8 flathead engine from Ford Motor Company. The B-12 had a flathead in line six cylinder engine from Chrysler industrial, and 2,817 units were produced until 1951. It was used in many applications, such as ambulances, Canada Post vehicles, winter "school buses", forestry machines and even army vehicles in World War II. Bombardier had always dreamed of a smaller version, more like the size of a motor scooter. Individual snowmobiles A snowmobile used by emergency services in ski areas in Vercors, French Alps. It carries emergency equipment and tows a stretcher.